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Lucille Margaret Loehrer Stolpman iiiii!i!!ii+!ii!!i .... I learned appreciation Lucille graduated from Milbank High School in the spring of 1942. She wanted to be a nurse. St. Luke's Hos- pital in Aberdeen had a nursing pro- gram; it was near home so she enrolled. America was at war on two fronts and not doing well. Unprepared, ill-equipped, and shortages in every- thing necessary to process a war, America struggled to get things on track. As the war progressed, the demand for nurses increased dramatically, out- stripping the supply and creating a nursing shortage. Searching for a solu- tion, the government conceived a plan whereby young women would be re- cruited into a nursing program of ex- cellerated training so that graduates could quickly fill the vacuum created by the large number of nurses being sent overseas. In March of 1943, Representative Frances Bolton of Ohio, herself a for- mer nurse, introduced a bill to estab- lish the Victory Nurse Corps, under the administration of the Federal Public Health Service. Later the Corps would be officially known as the Cadet Nurse Corps. The Bolton Act granted certain funds to accredited nursing schools so that they could upgrade and streamline their programs. Nurses were in critical demand. Training time would have to be shortened from the traditional 36 months to 30. The bill specified that volunteers had to agree to serve for the duration of the current war. Applicants were to understand that they would be required to provide "military or other Federal governmental or essential civilian (nursing) services... ", thus providing care for citizens both home and abroad. The requirements for applicants were few: any woman between the ages of 17 and 35 could apply. She must be in good health. Applicants had to be a graduate of an accredited high school with good grades. She could be married, but if not married, she would be allowed to marry subject to the rules of the nursing program she was attend- ing. This almost always meant that she could not marry until after graduating from the nursing program. Before being accepted in the Cadet Nurse Corps, applicants had to pass a battery of tests based on scientific, mathematical, and common-sense questions. An example of the latter was, "Which is more sanitary in a rest room, pull down cloth towels or paper towels?" The answer was, of course, paper towels. Another question was, "What would you do for a person in shock, raise or lower their head?" Most applicants had never seen a per- son in shock, so they didn't know - but they would learn about shock and a thousand other things they didn't know over 30 months of accelerated training. Successful applicants were granted a $15 to $30 per month stipend for books and living expenses. In addition they received paid tuition and two uni- forms. Now, the cadets were required to do floor work in a hospital as a part of their education, so the term "stipend" wasn't completely accurate. Hospitals were getting cheap labor at $15 to $30 a month. Passing a bill in Congress and im- plementing it are two different things. The first order of business was to get nursing schools to accept the program. Telegrams were sent to every nursing school in the United States, asking if they would join the fight by enrolling students in the Cadet Nurse Corps pro- gram. Of the 1300 schools, 1125 an- swered "yes". Next, women had to be recruited. The goal was to reach a quota of 65,000 cadet nurses in the first fiscal year. The government began a massive recruiting campaign to attract women to the new nursing program. It may seem strange to us now, but at that time nursing, although an accepted profes- sion for women, was not a preferred occupation. In particular, parents often discouraged their daughters from en- tering the nursing profession. Their concerns were several - the long hours and physical demands could diminish health, there would be exposure to in- fections and disease, working in unsafe conditions, and unsupervised associa- tion with men. Advertisements and articles ran in popular magazines read by young women including Mademoiselle, Cos- mopolitan, Colliers, Harper's Bazaar, and Ladies' Home Journal. Cadet Nurses were featured in movie news- reels and features, radio soap operas and variety shows, and numerous color posters that were prominently placed in areas frequented by high school girls. Posters were placed at depart- nothing less. For the first nine months of train- ing, cadets were known as "probies", short for probationary. At the end of the probationary training, Lucille was sent to Kee Hospital in Milwaukee where she received her pediatrics train- ing. She didn't know what kind of duty she would be assigned after com- pleting the program - she may find herself in a civilian hospital and pedi- atric care was a definite requirement in those hospitals. While at Kee, Lucille still had to keep up with her academ- ics, studying before and after her day's floor work. Then it was back to St. Luke's for more classroom and floor work. When that part of her training was completed, Lucille and three classmates were as- signed to Schick Army Hospital in Clinton, IA, where they would receive advanced training in the many aspects of treatment for wounded soldiers. "They put us on a milk train for Iowa. It took two days to get there. I think "We fee! ment stores, post offices, pharmacies, hospitals, and schools. Additionally, several million leaflets were distrib- uted all over the country. Everything was done to convince young women that it would be the best choice for them and their country to join the Corps. There were many other attractive and higher-paying jobs for women available during wartime, and therefore this was no easy task. For ex- ample, prominent companies who sup- ported the Cadet Nurse Corps were the Eastman Kodak Company, Pond's Cold Cream, Kleenex, Pepsi-Cola, Old Spice, Sanka Coffee and National Bis- cuit Company (Nabisco). Their com- mercial prestige and wide popularity as wholesome "All-American" compa- nies gave the recruiting effort a big boost. At Aberdeen, the administration of St. Luke's accepted the invitation to join the Nurse Cadet Corps program. "I was already in the nursing program there. They didn't have to recruit me. In fact, the entire class volunteered right on the spot. It was the patriotic thing to do." Lucille and her class- mates were among the very first, na- tionwide, to take the oath. At this moment of my induction into the United States Cadet Nurse Corps of the United States Public Health Service, I am solemnly aware of the ob- ligations I assume toward my country and toward my chosen profession; I will follow faithfully the teachings of my instructors and the guidance of the physicians with whom I work; I will hold in trust the finest traditions of nursing and the spirit of the Corps; I will keep my body strong, my mind alert, and my heart steadfast; I will be kind, tolerant, and understanding; Above all, I will dedicate myself now and forever to the triumph of life over death; As a Cadet nurse, I pledge to my country my service in essential nursing for the duration of the war. The cadets were immediately put into the new training program. Until now, they had been trained in the tra- ditionally accepted method, which was a form of apprenticeship. They fol- lowed instructional nurses and watched how to do things, then repeated the task. It began with bedpans and would progress, step by step, through all the duties of a registered nurse. Under the new, accelerated pro- gram, cadets would do academic work in the rn-oming and supervised floor work in the afternoon or evenings. In spare moments they would study and complete "homework" for the next day. If a cadet worked the night shift, she was still expected to be in class the next morning. "We studied the sciences - chem- istry, biology, anatomy, neurology, ge- netics, nutrition and health sciences. The nuns were tough on us - they were good teachers and they wanted us to be the best." Hard work, dedication and strong academic achievement were all the nuns expected. They would accept the train stopped at every town along the way." An Army car picked them up at the train station. "That was an exciting moment. We felt like we were in the Army. We lived in barracks with nurses from all over the country. We were treated as potential officers - we saluted and were saluted. We ate at the Officer's Mess with the regular Army officers. We were allowed to associate with officers, but not enlisted men, which I thought was odd." "They put a tough, old WAC im charge of us and she watched us like al hawk. We really couldn't go anywhere. We had to stay on grounds. The only thing we did for recreation was to go to the PX shopping, or to the Canteen to have a Coke." "When we weren't on the floor, nursing, we studied for board exams and, yes, we did our marching and close order drills. We learned military protocol, like when to salute and al- ways to address an officer as 'sir' ." At one point in their training the women put on gas masks and entered a gas l chamber. This was definitely not your mother's nurse's training. At Schick, Lucille would see what war did to soldiers. "We saw every- thing the machines of war could do to men. Our work, all our work, was with the wounded. I did training in the op- erating room, assisting doctors. I saw a LOT of surgery. All the men we treated were recent wounded shipped in from Europe. I don't know how they got the men from the battlefield to Iowa, but they did. We treated men three to four days after they were wounded in Europe. One day I found myself helping a wounded soldier with a dressing. He was from my home town of Milbank." "There were German POWs work- ing at the hospital. They seemed to like it there - they appeared to be happy. Maybe they were just glad to be out of the war, away from the killing. They did the cleaning and painting. We weren't allowed to talk to them. I can look up, right now, and still see them painting the walls of that hos- pital." Lucille returned to St. Luke's for the last six months of her training. "We worked the floor and studied for our board exams. At the end of the pro- gram and after passing boards, we graduated with the promotion of 2nd Lieutenant. The war in Europe had just ended, but we were still fighting Japan. That ended as we were preparing to go overseas. Even though the war was over, we still wondered what was going to happen. Europe was torn apart, so maybe we would go there." As it turned out, the regular Army nurses remained overseas and the Cadet Nurse Corps stayed home. Lu- cille was assigned to Ancker Hospital in St. Paul, which was a civilian hospi- tal. Nurses were still in short supply in the homeland. Lucille finished her service at the VA hospital in Fargo in H.00SSLEN CONSTRUCTION OR'rONVILLE, MN 320 839-2529 1947. Although the Cadet Nurse Corps was created to ease the nursing short- age during WWlI, it had an unintended effect in three aspects. In addition to training 124,000 nurses, it fostered a more academic approach to nursing, rather than the traditional apprentice- type training. Secondly, the Cadet pro- gram enabled more women to attend university nursing schools than ever before. This would change the attitude of the country as to the role and capa- bilities of women, enabling them, from that time forward, to pursue careers be- yond any of their previous dreams. Fi- nally, the program helped to integrate, at least some, nursing programs that had previously allowed only white stu- dents. In reference to the 124,000 Cadet Nurse graduates, William Perry, the Secretary of Defense under President Clinton observed that, "The ground they broke was hard soil indeed." Per- haps President Kennedy's words de- scribe it more deeply when he said in 1961, "Women should not be consid- ered a marginal group to be employed periodically, only to be denied oppor- tunity to satisfy their needs and aspi- rations when unemployment rises or a war ends." Women who served in the Cadet Nurse Corps have never received vet- eran benefits. Since 1968, several bills have been introduced in Congress to change that, if, for no other reason, than to recognize the service to Coun- try that was given by those women. None of those bills have made it out of committee. When asked what part of her expe- rience she held closest, Lucille said, "I learned appreciation. It took something very special for men and women to go overseas, away from home. I saw the suffering in the wounded, physically in the recovery wing, and mentally in the psych ward. I began to understand what depression was and that it could come from being wounded or just being in battle. I have a strong appre- ciation for what our country did back then." l . ( ) Big Stone Lake Ask a Trooper By Sgt. Kathy Pederson of the Minnesota State Patrol Dear Trooper Kathy: Why do they say that Thanksgiving time is the worst time for crashes? Is this true? Trooper Kathy says: Summer time is the time frame when we have the most dangerous crashes but one of the worst HOLIDAY's is Thanksgiving time. The 2011 deaths to-date include 36 motorcyclists, 27 pedestrians and three bicyclists -- each lower compared to its 2010 counts. July (46 deaths) and October (43 deaths) have been the deadliest months of the year in 2011 to- date, with January (15) and March (19) the least deadly. I can only make guesses as to why Thanksgiving Holiday Time is so deadly, but here are a few: First, it is five day Holiday time frame. Most Holiday time frames are 1-2 days. Second-Many times, it is the first time we experience severe winter weather and we're not "ready" for it yet. Third-Everyone is in a hurry. They are trying to get to one or both grand- parents' house. Fourth-Black Friday- We all know that everyone is in a hurry, tired, and not thinking about their driving as they race from one store to the next. I The Minnesota State Patrol reminds motorists to use their good defensive driving and winter driving skills this weekend. Motorists should remember to: Check road conditions -Hopefully we won't have severe weather, but if we do- Go to www.511 mn.org, or call 511. Be patient -Everyone wants to get someplace. Try to stay in the "Holiday Spirit". Second Stay alert - People may turn or exit frequently and often with little warn- ing. Slow down - If you start late-read- just your mental time clock as you will arrive late. Call ahead- to warn about late start- hand your cell phone to a passenger and have them call "Grandma" to tell her you will arrive late. DO NOT try and make up time. EVERYONE is out at the same time and because of the congestion, NO ONE will make up time. If your trip is long, arrange rest breaks-bathroom, treats, coffee stops to keep the driver fresh and everybody HAPPY. If you have any questions regarding traffic safety and/or traffic laws, please email her at kathy.pederson @state.mn.us. Conference for young writers Plan to attend the 20th Annual Con- ference for Young Writers on Jan. 5, 2012 at Southwest Minnesota State University in Marshall. The conference is for students in grades 3-8 and will begin at 8 a.m. with registration and end at 1:50 p.m. This conference celebrates writing and features a keynote presentation and three hands on sessions that introduce students to authors, illustrators and other types of communicators. Re- becca Fjelland Davis, author of picture books and young adult novels, is the keynote speaker. Through interaction with the pre- senters, students will discover their creative abilities and how to express their thoughts. Seventeen presenters will give classes on various kinds of writing; poetry, illustrating, joumaling, fantasy or science fiction. In addition, students will create characters, give their creativity a jump start, break writer's block, write be- tween the lines, bring an adventure to life, learn about graphic novels, ex- .plore the fast changing world of writ- lng sports stories, try an interactive the- atrical experience and more. Looking for a Birthday or Christ- mas gift for that special child in your life - your daughter/son, niece/nephew, or grandchild? Consider paying the registration fee or taking them to the conference. It will be a great learning experience for the child as well as a great way to spend quality time with that special child. Students must be pre-registered and accompanied by an adult to attend the conference. The early bird registration deadline is Nov. 22 with the final reg- istration deadline on Nov. 29. Register early for better chance that your child gets the classes they're most interested In. The conference brochure and regis- tration form are available on SW/WC Service Cooperative's website: www.swsc.org/studentactivities. If you have questions, contact Andrea Ander- son at andrea.anderson@swsc.org or call 507-537-2257. Family Living Focus I Celebrating Family Caregivers- National Caregivers Month Debbie turned the ringing alarm off. It was 6 a.m. and time to get her- self ready for the day. Her son would be there soon to help her shower and dress her husband Jim. Her son came every day before work to help because Debbie, at 75 years old and suffering with arthritis, could not lift Jim out of bed or help him to the shower. This has been the daily routine since Jim's stroke a year ago. When her son leaves for work, Debbie spends the day caring for Jim's needs. President Barack Obama, in his Presidential Proclamation of National Family Caregivers Month-2011 states: "Across our country, millions of family members, neighbors, and friends provide care and support for their loved ones during times of need. With profound compassion and self- lessness, these caregivers sustain American men, women, and children at their most vulnerable moments, and through their devoted acts, they exem- plify the best of the American spirit." Statistics from the Administration on Aging show that the population 65 and older is expected to grow from its Icurrent 13 percent to 19 percent of the total population by 2030. With the older population increasing, the need for elder caregiving will continue to increase. Family caregivers play a vital role in filling these caregiving needs. Who better than family can un- derstand the needs and ensure the best care of their loved ones. Caregiving can be very stressful and demanding. In the case of a healthy spouse or a child living with the disabled person at home, caregiv- ing can be a 24 hour, seven day a week commitment. But even for the care- giver not living in the home, looking after a loved one or friend can consume all of the caregiver's free time. Surveys and studies consistently show that depression is a major prob- lem with full-time informal caregivers. This is typically brought on by stress and fatigue as well as social isolation from family and friends. If allowed to go on too long, the caregiver can some- times break down and may end up needing long term care as well. A typical pattern may unfold as fol- lows: One to 18 months-the caregiver is confident, has everything under control and is coping well. Other friends and family are lending support. 20 to 36 months-the caregiver is taking medication to sleep and control mood swings. Outside help dwindles away and except for trips to the store or doctor, the caregiver has severed most social contacts. The caregiver feels alone and helpless. 38 to 50 months-Besides needing tranquilizers or antidepressants, the caregiver's physical health is beginning to deteriorate. Lack of focus and sheer fatigue cloud judgment and the care- giver is often unable to make rational decisions or ask for help. It is often at this stage that family or friends inter- cede and find other solutions for care. This may include respite care, hiring home health aides or putting the dis- abled care recipient in a facility. With- out intervention, the family caregiver may become a candidate for long term care as well. Since most family members go into informal caregiving without training or counseling, they often aren't aware of the possible outcome described above. It is therefore extremely important to seek counseling and to formulate a plan of action prior to making a care- giving commitment. According to the National Care Planning Council: "In 1965, Congress passed the Older Americans Act which provides guidance and funding to the States to give help to caregivers. All states offer programs at no cost or very low cost which might include: counseling, care- giver training, respite care, adult day care, meals, support groups and much, much more. It is vital for the health and longevity of all caregivers to make use of these services." In 1994 President Clinton pro- claimed a week in November as Na- tional Family Caregivers week to be observed with appropriate programs and activities. It has since been changed to the whole month of No- vember with each President giving a yearly proclamation for its observance. Information adapted from article by National Care Planning Council. For more information contact Gail Gilman-Waldner, Program Develop- ment and Coordination - Minnesota River Area Agency on Aging, Inc. and Professor Emeritus - University of Minnesota at 507-389-8869 or e-mail Gail at ggwaldner@rndc.org. Addi- tional resources are available by visit- ing MinnesotaHelp.Info or calling the Senior LinkAge Line: A One Stop Shop for Minnesota Seniors, at 1- 800-333-2433. Veteran Service News By Dan Meyer Big Stone Co. Veteran Service Officer The Big Stone County Veterans Service Office hours are from 7:30 a.m.-4 p.m., Monday through Friday. My office .phone number IS (320) 839- 6398. Today's topic will consist of the most fre- quently asked questions I re- ceive concern- ing a Veteran's U.S. Burial Flag. Why does Veteran Affairs (VA) provide a Burial Flag? A United States Flag is provided, at no cost, to drape the casket or accom- pany the urn of a deceased Veteran who served honorably in the U.S. Armed Forces. It is furnished to honor the memory of a Veteran's military service to his or her country. Who is eligible to receive the Bur- ial Flag? Generally, the Flag is given to the next-of-kin, as a keep sake, after its use during the funeral service. When there is no next-of-kin, VA will furnish the Flag to a friend making the request for it. For those VA national cemeteries with an Avenue of Flags, families of Veterans buried in these national ceme- teries may donate the Burial Flags of their loved ones to be flown on patri- otic holidays. How can you apply? You may apply for a U.S. Burial Flag by completing VA Form 21-2008, Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes. You may get a Burial Flag at any VA regional office or most U.S. Post Offices. Generally, the fu- neral director will help you obtain the Flag. It must be noted that in Big Stone County, the funeral home in- forms me of the death of the veteran and my office is responsible for corn- pleting VA Form 21-2008. After I have delivered the VA Form 21-2008 to our Post Office, I then hand-carry the Bur- ial Flag to the staff at the Larson Fu- neral Home. Can a Burial Flag be replaced? The law allows VA to issue one Flag for a Veteran's funeral. They can- not replace it if it is lost, destroyed, or stolen. However, some Veterans or- ganizations or other community groups may be able to help you get another one. How should the Burial Flag be dis- played? The proper way to display the a Burial Flag depends upon whether the casket was open or closed. VA Form 21-2008 does provide the correct method for displaying and folding the Burial Flag. The Burial Flag is not suit- able for outside display because of its size and fabric. It is made of cotton and can easily be damaged by weather. Until next week, take care and "Fair Winds and Following Seas!" Tuesday, Nov. 22, 2011 f 1 00INDEPENDENT J